|1. States of Matter|
- Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures.
- Chemical reactions: Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory; Mole concept; Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition empirical & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry
- Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points Gaseous state: Gas Laws, ideal behavior, ideal gas equation, empirical derivation of gas equation, Avogadro number, Deviation from ideal behaviour – Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.
- Liquid state: Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
- Solid state
|2. Atomic Structure|
- Introduction: Subatomic particles; Atomic number, isotopes and isobars, Thompson’s model and its limitations, Rutherford’s picture of atom and its limitations; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model and its limitations.
- Quantum mechanics: Wave-particle duality – de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes (s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.
- Many electron atoms: Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund’s rule.
- Periodicity: Brief history of the development of periodic tables Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f blocks
|3. Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure|
- Valence electrons, Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle; Covalent character of ionic bonds and polar character of covalent bond, bond parameters
- Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes
- Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridization (s, p & d orbitals only), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory- Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species (qualitative idea only).
- Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.
- Basic Concepts: Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature
- First Law of Thermodynamics: Work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, heat capacities and specific heats, measurements of ∆U and ∆H, Enthalpies of formation, phase transformation, ionization, electron gain; Thermochemistry; Hess’s Law, Enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, atomization, sublimation, solution and dilution
- Second Law: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-spontaneity, non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium
- Third Law: Introduction
|5. Physical and Chemical Equilibria|
- Concentration Units: Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
- Solutions: Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult’s law, Relative lowering of vapor pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass; solid solutions, abnormal molecular mass, van’t Hoff factor. Equilibrium: Dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action
- Physical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gas), Surface chemistry, Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm, Colloids and emulsion, classification, preparation, uses.
- Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constants (KP, KC), Factors affecting equilibrium, LeChatelier’s principle.
- Ionic Equilibria: Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; degree of ionization, Ionization of Water; ionization of polybasic acids, pH; Buffer solutions; Henderson equation, Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.
- Factors Affecting Equilibria: Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of DG and DG0 in Chemical Equilibria.
- Redox Reactions: Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Standard electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Factors affecting the electrode potential; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Secondary cells; dry cells, Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
- Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific and molar conductivities; variations of conductivity with concentration , Kolhrausch’s Law and its application, Electrolysis, XVI Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al.
|7. Chemical Kinetics|
- Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order and molecularity of the reaction; Integrated rate expressions and half life for zero and first order reactions.
- Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Concentration of the reactants, catalyst; size of particles, Temperature dependence of rate constant concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment); Activation energy.
- Surface Chemistry
|8. Hydrogen and s-block elements|
- Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen: preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, ionic, covalent, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide: preparation, reaction, structure & use, Hydrogen as a fuel.
- s-block elements: Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first element in each group; diagonal relationships; trends in the variation of properties (ionization energy, atomic & ionic radii).
- Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Biological importance; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens water; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.
- Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with O2, H2O, H2 and halogens; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Biological importance of Ca and Mg; Preparation, properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4.
|9. p- d- and f-block elements|
- General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group; electronic configuration, oxidation states; anomalous properties of first element of each group
|10. Principles of Organic Chemistry and Hydrocarbons||Classification; Electronic displacement in a covalent bond; Alkanes; Alkenes and alkynes; Aromatic hydrocarbons; Haloalkanes and haloarenes.|
- Conformations: Ethane conformations; Newman and Sawhorse projections.
- Geometrical isomerism in alkenes
|12. Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Containing Oxygen and Nitrogen|
|13. Biological , Industrial and Environmental chemistry||Carbohydrates; Proteins; Nucleic Acids; Nucleic Acids; Vitamins; Polymer; Pollution; Chemicals in medicine, health-care and food.|
|14. Theoretical Principles of Experimental Chemistry||Volumetric Analysis; Qualitative analysis of Inorganic Salts; Purification Method; Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds; Principles of Organic Chemistry Experiments; Basic Laboratory Technique.|