All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) was established by the Act of Parliament in 1956 as an autonomous institute to set patterns in Undergraduate and Postgraduate Medical Education in all its branches to so as to demonstrate a high standard of medical education. This is the only institute outside the jurisdiction of Medical Council of India to encourage experiments in the curriculum. The Course leading to the Degree of MBBS has been in existence since 1956. It mainly follows a disciplinary structure. However, since inception, AIIMS has been constantly upgrading its course content in tune with the changing needs. Many alterations have taken place during the last fifty years, which have been reflected in the present curriculum document.

MBBS Course

The MBBS course comprises four and a half years, followed by compulsory rotatory internship of one year. The course follows semester system, each semester consisting of six months. The MBBS course is divided in to three phases, viz., Pre-clinical, Para-clinical and Clinical Phase, during which following subjects are introduced:

Phase Semesters Subjects Covered
Pre Clinical 1-2 Anatomy, Bio-chemistry, Physiology
Para Clinical 3-5 Community Medicine; Forensic Medicine,
Pathology, Pharmacology, Microbiology, Clinical
postings in wards, OPDs to begin here;
Clinical 6-9 Community Medicine, Medicine and allied
subjects (Psychiatry, Dermatology); Obst.
Gynae.; Pediatrics;
Surgery and allied subjects (Anesthesiology,
E.N.T., Ophthalmology, Orthopedics);
Clinical postings;

MBBS 1st Year Syllabus

As shown in the above table, in the 1st year or in the First Two Semesters there will be a total of 3 Subjects that will be covered and this phase is called Pre Clinical Phase of MBBS Program.

Candidates can read below the complete detailed syllabus of the Subjects in the 1st Year of their MBBS. We will be covering the subject wise details now:

Anatomy

Total duration of course is one year. It comprises of two semesters I and II. Each semester is of six months duration.

Course commences from 1st August every year and ends on 15 June following year.

The subject of anatomy is taught under the following heads :

  1. Gross anatomy
  2. Microanatomy
  3. Embryology and Genetics
  4. Neuroanatomy

COURSE CONTENT

Gross Anatomy

Introduction to Anatomy, nomenclature, anatomical position, planes, tissues and movements.

  • Osteology

(a) Names of the bones of the body and their position; classification of the bones with examples; general features of the bone and normal development; microscopic anatomy of bone; general pattern of blood supply; ossification of the bones of the limbs for age determination. X-rays of bones.

(b) Process of repair of bone.

  • Muscular System

(a) Classification and identification of the muscles of the body: main attachments, nerve supply and action(s), microscopic anatomy of muscles and the nerve terminations.

(b) Details of attachments of the muscles; ultrastructural features of muscle; mechanism of the movement caused by the muscle/muscles and various forces exerted by them and their detailed action(s).

  • Arthrology

(a) Definition and classification of joints, general features of different types of joints; detailed study of major joints of the limbs and movements performed at various joints in the body.

(b) Microscopic anatomy of articular cartilage; maintenance of articular cartilages; blood supply and nerve supply of the joints.

  • Cardio Vascular System

(a) Normal position, external features and parts of the heart; internal features of the chambers of heart, names of the blood vessels and venous drainage of the organs, structures and body as a whole, conducting system of heart, fibroskeleton of heart.

(b) Variation(s), developmental anomalies of heart and blood vessels, valvular defects and their effects in pathogenesis of the anomalies.

  • Respiratory System

(a) Position, parts, relations, blood supply of upper and lower respiratory tract. Pleura, its reflection, nerve supply, pleural recesses and their significance, bronchopulmonary segments, their importance.

(b) Mechanism of respiration

  • Digestive System

(a) Position, extent, parts, relations, blood supply, nerve supply, lymphatic drainage and sphincters of the gastrointestinal system.

(b) Sphincteric action including functional implications.

  • Genito-Urinary System

(a) Parts, position, relations, blood supply, nerve supply and lymphatic drainage of uterus, cervix, vagina, ovary, ovarian duct, testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, ductus deferens, prostate, kidney, ureter, urinary bladder and urethra

(b) Innervation of urinary bladder in detail

  • Endocrine System and Individual Endocrine Glands

(a) Various endocrine glands, their location, relations, blood supply, nerve supply and lymphatic drainage.

(b) Clinical manifestations of common endocrine disorders.

  • Nervous System and its components

(a) Parts of nervous system, neuron meninges, nerve terminals, neuroglia, myelination, degeneration and regeneration, ventricles, CSF, spinal cord and its blood supply. Motor and sensory pathways, cranial nerves, thalamus, cerebellum, limbic and autonomic pathways. Functional cortical areas, motor and sensory cortex and their blood supply.

  • Special Sensory Organs

Gross Anatomy of :

  1. eyeball, extraocular muscles their nerve supply and actions (s)
  2. ear
  3. nose
  4. tongue, its musculature blood supply and lymphatic drainage.
  • Lymphatic System

Location of the major groups of the lymphnodes of the body and their drainage areas. Gross anatomy of the major lymphatics specially thoracic duct and its tributaries.

  • Surface Anatomy

Surface features of the body and projection of the outline of heart, its borders, surfaces and valves, lungs, their borders, fissures and hila, pleura, liver, kidneys and various abdominal and pelvic organs and important vessels and nerves

  • Cross Sectional Anatomy

Cross sections of thorax, abdomen and pelvis to understand the interrelationship of organs and structures.

Microanatomy

Microscope and basic principles of microscopy, commonly used stains, basophilic and acidophilic staining reactions and their significance. Commonly encountered artifacts. Brief principle of electron microscopy and interpretation of ultrastructural features.

Embryology

A General Embryology

  1. Definition of embryology; gestation period: definition of gamete sperm, Ovum; gametogenesis, migration of primordial germ cells into gonadal ridge; spermatogenesis; structure of sperm, oogenesis; structure of ovum; growth of ovarian follicles, ovarian and uterine cycles.
  2. Sperm in the male genital tract; sperm in the female genital tract, activation and capacitation of sperm in the female genital tract.
  3. First Week of Development
    Definition and normal site and process of fertilisation, formation of zygote, cleavage division; formation of morula and blastocyst.
  4. Second Week of Development
    Differentiation of embryoblast and trophoblast; changes in the embryoblast formation of bilainar germ disc; changes in the trophoblast; formation of cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, amniotic membrane, yolk sac, extra embryonic mesoderm and extra embryonic coelom and connecting stalk; formation of chorion, amniotic cavity, primary yolk sac cavity appearance of prochordal plate.
    Implantation; formation of decidua, types of implantation and abnormal sites of implantation
  5. Third Week of Development
    Appearance of primitive streak and primitive node; formation of intraembroynic mesoderm resulting in trilaminar germ disc; gastrulation formation of notochord, buccopharyngeal and cloacal membranes, paraxial, intermediate and lateral plate mesoderm, secondary yolk sac, intraembryonic coelom and allantoic diverticulum; derivatives of ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
  6. Fourth To Eighth week of Development (Embryonic period)
    Formation of somites, neural tube, cephalocaudal folding, lateral foldings, body form, stomodeum, proctodeum, gut and vitelline duct; subdivisions of gut into foregut, midgut and hindgut. Development from third month to birth (Fetal period)
  7. Maturation of tissues and organs and rapid growth of body.
  8. Estimation of age.
  9. Formation of placenta and chorionic villi, decidua basalis; features and functions of placenta; placental circulation; abnormalities; placental barrier; placentome, types of placenta.
  10. Formation of umbilical cord; features of umbilical cord. Amniotic Cavity
  11. Amniotic cavity and membrane; amniotic fluid – functions, expansions of amniotic cavity and fusion with chorion; chorion laeve with decidua capsularis; decidua capsularis with parietalis; obliteration of chorionic and uterine cavities; function of fused foetal membranes to dilate cervical canal.
  12. Abnormalities; obliteration of chorionic and uterine cavities; abnormalities of chorion.
  13. Formation of twins and types of twins.
  14. Arrangement of foetal membranes. Conjoined twins.
  15. Genetical and environmental factors as causative factors for congenital malformations.
  16. Mode of actions of teratogenes and critical periods

Systemic Embryology

  1. Development of the individual organs of digestive system, genital system, urinary system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system. Nervous system, special sensory organs, endocrine glands and mammary gland.
  2. Developmental abnormalities of individual organs/systems, pathogenesis of the anomalies.
  3. Histogenesis of various organs.
  4. Development of skeletal system, muscular system and derivatives of coelomic cavaties
  5. Development of face and the pharyngeal arches and the associated congenital anomalies.

Human Genetics

  1. Cell, cell division, mitosis and meiosis, nucleus, DNA, chromosomes, classification, karyotype, chromosomal aberrations (Klinefelter, Turner and Down’s Syndrome) Prenatal diagnosis for congenital abnormalities, sex determination.
  2. Pedigree chart, pathogenesis of chromosomal aberrations and their effects, recombinant DNA, genetic inheritance, genetic counselling, inborn errors of metabolism.

Neuro Anatomy

Gross specimen of full brain, meninges, spinal cord, prosected specimens to demonstrate visual system, auditory and vesibular pathways and major functional areas. Stained sections of brain and spinal cord at various levels to demonstrate cranial nerve nuclei, ascending and descending tracts, thalamic nuclei and important functional areas.

Bio-Chemistry

Biological cell

  • Architecture, compartmentation, cell membrane structure and functions; structure- function relationships.
  • Membrane transport.

Biomolecules

  • Function and classification of carbohydrates, lipids, protein and amino acids.
  • Stereoisomerism and chemistry of monosaccharides, amino acids, and fatty acids.
  • Structural organization and structure-function relationships of proteins. Hemoglobin and myoglobin, molecular mechanism of O2 transport and storage. Molecular basis of sickle cell anaemia and thallesemias.
  • Molecular mechanism of muscle contraction.
  • Plasma proteins, their functions and clinical significance.

Enzymes

  • Nomenclature, classification,
  • Kinetics, mechanism of enzymatic catalysis.
  • Factors influencing enzymatic catalyses, enzyme activators and inhibitors.
  • Regulation of enzyme activity,
  • Clinical enzymology, isoenzymes.

Carbohydrate metabolism

  • Pathways of glucose metabolism: glycolysis
  • HMP shunt
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Glycogenolysis, glycogenesis
  • Galactose and fructose metabolism
  • Glycogen storage disease
  • Inborn errors of glucose metabolism
  • Regulation of glucose metabolism.

Amino acid metabolism

  • General reactions, transamination, its metabolic and diagnostic significance
  • Disposal of amino acid nitrogen and detoxication of urea
  • Metabolic fate of amino acid carbon skeleton
  • Sulphur containing amino acids
  • In born errors of branched chain and aromatic amino acids
  • Important amino acid derivatives.

Lipid metabolism

  • Biosynthesis and degradation of fatty acids, phospolipids and triacylglycerols
  • Biosynthesis of cholesterol, chemistry and metabolism of lipoproteins.
  • Hyperlipoproteinemias
  • Lipid storage disease.
  • Ketone bodies: their synthesis, utilization and conditions leading to ketoacidosis, prostaglandin.

TCA cycle and biological oxidation, prostanoids. Regulation of the metabolic pathways

  • Carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid metabolism
  • Interlinks between these pathways.
  • Organ interrelationships in metabolism,
  • Blood glucose regulation, and its impairment in diabetes mellitus.
  • Metabolic adaptation in the fed state, fasting and prolonged starvation.
  • Metabolic derangements and adaptations in diabetes mellitus.

Food assimilation and nutrition

  • Digestive enzymes, their action on dietary carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
  • Absorption of glucose, amino acids and lipids.
  • Gastric, pancreatic and intestinal function tests, liver function tests.
  • Functions of dietary ingredients, the macro and micronutrients.
  • Fat soluble and water soluble vitamins
  • Malnutrition
  • Iron metabolism and heme synthesis.

Hormones

  • Molecular basis of hormonal action, signal transduction mechanisms.
  • Chemistry, functions and mechanism of action of hormones of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, panaceas, and gonads.
  • Biosynthesis of steroid hormones their functions and mechanism of action.
  • Pineal body
  • Endorphins and encephalins,
  • Calcium homeostasis.
  • Hormonal interplay in the regulation of metabolism.

Molecular Biology

  • Nucleic acids: DNA and RNA structure
  • DNA Replication,
  • DNA Transcription
  • Post-transcriptional processing.
  • Translation of genetic code
  • Regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis inhibitors of protein synthesis.
  • DNA repair mechanisms,
  • Applied aspects of purine and pyrimidine metabolism
  • Genetic Engineering: Recombinant DNA technology
  • DNA and diagnostics
  • DNA repair mechanisms and related disorders
  • Telomers, telomerases
  • Inhibitors of DNA replication, apoptosis pH, Buffer, physiological buffer systems
    (a) Regulation of blood pH, acidosis, alkalosis,
    (b) Renal functions tests.

Immunology

  • Reticuloendothelial system, components and functions of the innate and adaptive immunity.
  • Role of T and B lymphocytes, antigen presentation
  • Induction of immune response
  • Cell mediated immune response
  • Immunoglobulin structure and functions
  • Humoral immune response
  • Fate of antigen antibody complex,
  • Complement system
  • Generation of antibody diversity,
  • Hypersensitivities
  • Immunoregulation, autoimmunity, tolerance
  • HLA, disease association & transplantation
  • Immunological techniques, application in medicine (vaccines, immunotherapy, immunoassays and immunodiagnostics).

Environmental biochemistry, cancer and cancer makers

  • Xenbiotics, interaction with biomolecules, effects, metabolism, detoxication,
  • Biochemical characteristics of cancer
  • Environmental pollutants and carcinogenensis

Physiology

General Physiology

  1. Mutual introduction of dramatis personae in the teaching learning process
  2. Know thy institute
  3. Physiology: what and why? Homeostasis: an evolutionary point of view
  4. Characteristics of control systems
  5. Looking back & forth
  6. Reading efficiently

Nerve–Muscle

  1. Physicochemical properties of cell membrane
  2. Cell membrane: permeability & transport
  3. Principles of bioelectricity
  4. Genesis of resting membrane potential
  5. Action potential
  6. Properties of nerve-fibres
  7. Functional anatomy of neuromuscular junction
  8. Neuromuscular transmission
  9. Muscle proteins – (Biochemistry)
  10. Excitation – contraction coupling
  11. Contraction kinetics of skeletal muscles
  12. Smooth muscle
  13. Injury & repair of nerves and muscles
  14. Energetics of nerve & muscle
  15. Work Physiology

Blood

  1. Functions of plasma proteins
  2. Principles of hemopoiesis
  3. Regulation of erythropoiesis
  4. Destruction of red cells: Jaundice
  5. Anemia
  6. Regulation of WBC production
  7. Functions of WBC
  8. Functions of platelets
  9. Hemostasis
  10. Blood groups
  11. Physiological basis of transfusion medicine

Respiratory System

  1. Introduction to respiratory system
  2. Lung volumes and capacities
  3. Mechanics of respiration – I
  4. Mechanics of respiration – II
  5. Composition of respired air: pulmonary ventilation
  6. Exchange of gases in the lungs
  7. Ventilation – perfusion ratio
  8. O2 carriage, O2 –dissociation curve
  9. CO2 carriage, CO2 –dissociation curve
  10. Neural regulation of respiration
  11. Chemical regulation of respiration
  12. Hypoxia, cyanosis and dyspnoea
  13. Special features of pulmonary circulation
  14. Artificial respiration Artificial respiration
  15. Therapeutic use of oxygen.

Cardiovascular System

  1. Introduction to CVS
  2. Properties of cardiac muscle
  3. Action potential and spread of impulse in the heart
  4. E-C coupling in the myocardium
  5. ECG
  6. Pressure changes in the heart. Cardiac cycle
  7. Functional basis of heart sounds and murmurs
  8. Neural regulation of cardiac activity
  9. Regulation of heart rate
  10. Intrinsic regulation of heart’s action. Cardiac output
  11. Cardiac output: measurement and regulation
  12. Nutrition and metabolism of heart
  13. Exercise physiology
  14. General principles of hemodynamics
  15. Cardiovascular reflexes
  16. Neural control of circulation
  17. Special features of cerebral circulation
  18. Special features of circulation in skeletal muscles and skin

Gastrointestinal System

  1. Introduction to G.I. Physiology: general organization of G.I. tract
  2. Mastication and deglutition.
  3. Gastric secretion
  4. Regulation of gastric secretion
  5. Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer
  6. Biliary and pancreatic secretions
  7. Physiology of colon
  8. Pathophysiology of diarrheal disease

Nutrition

  1. Introduction to nutrition. RMR
  2. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber
  3. Proteins
  4. Fats
  5. Recommended dietary allowances
  6. Diet during pregnancy and lactation
  7. Diet during infancy and childhood

Environmental Physiology

  1. Introduction to environmental physiology
  2. Body temperature regulation
  3. Man in cold environment
  4. Man in hot environment
  5. Hypothermia and its clinical applications
  6. Physiological responses to high attitude
  7. Physiological responses to high atmospheric pressure

Reproduction

  1. Introduction to reproductive system
  2. Male reproductive physiology
  3. Female reproductive physiology
  4. Hypothalamic – pituitary – gonadal axis
  5. Puberty
  6. Pregnancy
  7. Parturition and lactation
  8. Reproductive ageing

Kidney

  1. Renal hemodynamics and glomerular filtration
  2. Renal tubular function – I
  3. Renal tubular function – II
  4. Regulation of renal function
  5. Physiological basis of renal function tests
  6. Micturition

Sensory system

  1. Coding of sensory information
  2. Functional organization of ascending sensory pathways
  3. Thalamus
  4. Sensory cortex
  5. Perception of sensory stimuli
  6. Physiology of pain

Motor system

  1. Characteristics and properties of reflexes
  2. Functional organization of motor system – I
  3. Functional organization of motor system – II
  4. Brain stem reflexes, stretch reflexes and tendon reflexes
  5. Basal ganglia
  6. Cerebellum
  7. Vestibular neck reflexes: maintenance of equilibrium
  8. Localizing the level of lesion in neurological disease

Visceral and motivational system

  1. Autonomic nervous system
  2. Hypothalamus
  3. Limbic system and emotions

EEG, sleep and higher nervous functions

  1. Electroencephalography
  2. Sleep and wakefulness
  3. Learning and memory – I
  4. Learning and memory – II
  5. Speech

Special Senses

  1. Functional anatomy of eye
  2. Functions of retina: photoreception
  3. Functions of retina: colour vision and electroretinography
  4. Central mechanisms of vision and visual perception
  5. Functional anatomy of ear: impedance matching
  6. Organ of Corti: peripheral auditory mechanism
  7. Auditory pathway
  8. Central auditory mechanism and auditory perception
  9. Olfaction
  10. Physiology of taste

Yoga

  1. Introduction to yoga
  2. The yogic practices
  3. Meditation: principles and practice
  4. Physiological effects of yoga
  5. Yoga in health and disease

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